## How much weight will 2″ aluminum angle support?

Question by wskinn: How much weight will 2″ aluminum angle support?
I am building the benchwork for a portable model railroad. I would like to use 2″ aluminum angle bonded to the edges of 2″ thick x 24″ wide pink board insulation panels. How much weight can I put on a 5 foot span? Rough guesses are good, telling me where I can find aluminum angle span tables would be great!

We could use some more information on the angle, but I will just pick one, a 2″x2″x3/16″ having a section modulus (Z) of 0.19.
Also I will presume the load from the table contents is uniformly distributed and not concentrated in the center, and that the span is simply supported. Annealed low alloy aluminum has a tensil strength of about 12000 psi. I will use half of that for the design stress. (I would use even less if it was a larger more serious structure.)
The bending moment “M” for that configuration is WL/8 where W is the total load. L=60″ so M is 7.5 W
The formula for bending stress is S = M/Z
6000 = 7.5W/0.19 so W is 152 pounds distributed across the 5ft length.
If the allowable load was indeed concentrated in the center it would be 76 pounds and the deflection downward would be about 1/8″
This is a bit on the conservative side so I would not be concerned with a 100 pound concentrated load directly on the angle.

## MODEL train car weight standards: Any one have copies of standards for HO scale rolling stock??

Question by gene.brooks175@sbcglobal.net: MODEL train car weight standards: Any one have copies of standards for HO scale rolling stock??

HO scale (H0 scale in continental Europe) is the most popular scale of model railway in most of the world outside the United Kingdom, where the slightly larger in scale OO scale is most common. The name is derived from the German Halb-null (“half-zero”), because its 1:87 scale is approximately half that of O scale.

In HO scale, 3.5 millimetres represents 1 real foot; this awkward ratio works out to about 1:87.086. In HO, rails are usually spaced 16.5 millimeters apart which models the standard railroad gauge of 4′ 8.5″.

Modern HO trains run on realistic-looking two-rail track, which is powered by direct current (varying the voltage applied to the rails to change the speed, and polarity to change direction), or by Digital Command Control (sending commands to a decoder in each locomotive). Some trains, most notably by MĂ¤rklin of Germany, run on alternating current, supplied by a “third rail” consisting of small bumps on each tie down the centre of the track.

HO scale trains first appeared in the United Kingdom in the 1930s, originally as an alternative to OO scale. It proved unsuitable for scale modelling UK trains. However, it became very popular in the United States, where it took off in the late 1950s after interest in model railroads as toys began to decline and more emphasis began to be placed on realism in response to hobbyist demand. While HO scale is by nature more delicate than O scale, its smaller size allows modelers to fit more details and more scale miles into a comparable area.

In the 1960s, as HO scale began to overtake O scale in popularity, even the stalwarts of other sizes, including Gilbert (makers of American Flyer) and Lionel Corporation began manufacturing HO trains. HO locomotives, rolling stock (cars or carriages), buildings, and scenery are available today from a large number of manufacturers in a variety of price brackets.

HO scale has several narrower gauges to represent narrow gauge trains in the same scale as their HO counterparts, these include:
– HOe scale – with 9mm gauge tracks (the same as N scale), usually used to represent 2 foot gauge in HO Scale.
– HOm scale – with 12mm gauge tracks (the same as TT scale), usually used to represent meter gauge in HO Scale; this is a particularly popular scale in Europe.

## weight of a car of an electric train?

Question by cyrano: weight of a car of an electric train?
how much does a car of an electric train weigh?

Depends on the type of car. All weights are listed on the side of the cars. So you can look at any photo. Start at 220,000 pounds and up for boxcar. Passenger and tank cars are more.

What do you think? Answer below!

## I have a rock about the size of a golf ball that weighs 2.6 oz. What would that weight be in HO train scale?

Question by GPSMAN: I have a rock about the size of a golf ball that weighs 2.6 oz. What would that weight be in HO train scale?
I know HO scale is 1:87 but that is for linear feet. How do I scale mass?

mass is the same as volume:

that would be:

1: 658503

so that would be about 20 tons.

What do you think? Answer below!

## Weight lifting anyone?

Weight lifting anyone?

Image by lancea
The new overhead wires being installed on the Wellington regional railway are tensioned with weights. This isn’t the case with the old wires. Perhaps that is why they sometimes get broken, causing major delays?

Extensive work is underway on the Wellington regional railway in preparation for the arrival of new electric trains in 2010. Many new substations are being built. The overhead cables and tracks are being upgraded.

## How much weight training?

Question by mrblack: How much weight training?
I recently started weights but i’m confused. I split my workout upper one day lower next. I’ve read to pick 3 execises per muscle(chest,back,shoulders,bicep,tricep-1st day) thats 15 exercises. Then do 3+ sets each(thats 45 sets total). “do the reps slowly with 30sec-90sec rest between sets”. This takes 1 1/2 plus hours roughly. Then I read to keep the work out under an hour?Should i do less to get under an hour? Lift faster? Not worry about the time?

You can get the desired result by using the cellular nutrition which is popular in 63 countries currently!!

What do you think? Answer below!

## Toning / weight lifting: what are sets? What are reps? I’m looking to TONE NOT BULK UP?

Question by Aviation747: Toning / weight lifting: what are sets? What are reps? I’m looking to TONE NOT BULK UP?
Back in high school 4 years ago, I was on the football team (yes, I AM female, and yes, I was the only female on the team—lol) and did track. It was the same coach for both and he required that everyone (on team) did weight training, as supervised by him, as a group, all of us in the weight room at once.

But, from 4 years of just being into cardio (I do 1.5 hours a day 6 days a week) and not weight training, I feel like I’ve forgotten EVERYTHING. Plus, while I’m NOT flabby or fat, I feel I could LOOK more toned. So I want to get into weights to TONE up, not BULK up.

To start…what are “reps”? What are “sets”? Asking friends (who, all, coincidentally DO NOT do weight training or toning of ANY KIND), I’ve heard so many things, like:

Reps: number of times you repeat an exercise in a row without stopping (e.g., 10 repeats = 10 ‘reps’ in gym-speak)
I’ve also heard that reps are: the number of times you complete a cluster of the same exercise. So, you may do exercise x 10 times in a row, wait 30 seconds, and repeat (‘rep’ = “gym-speak”) that cluster 4 times, for a total of 40 times working that muscle.

And…basically, I heard the exact 2 definitions for sets. One saying it was #x you do an exercise (like 10 x) and the other being the number of times you repeat a cluster of the same exercise.

I do have a weight training book. There were only 3 to choose from at my bookstore because most of the fitness books at my bookstore (its a huge bookstore) are about calorie-counting / healthy recipes, or yoga & pilates. And the training book says to TONE up, you should only do 8-12 reps, and do this 2-3 x per week. But…how many sets? It doesn’t say that.

Would appreciate it if answerers are either 1) weight training / weight toners currently 2) fitness experts/traingers. NOT just people (like my friends) that have either 1) never lifted weights or 2) have done so but done so so many years ago they forget (like myself).