I want to know about the Rivonia Trial?

Question by chiccoshines: I want to know about the Rivonia Trial?
I want to know about thelife of Nelson Mandela in pison.Information on the day he was release.The first Democatically President of South Africa.The Great Achievements Mandela achieved.

Best answer:

Answer by irule
The Rivonia Trial was an infamous trial which took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to “ferment violent revolution”.

Origins
It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19 ANC leaders were arrested at Liliesleaf Farm, privately owned by Arthur Goldreich, on 11th July 1963. It had been used as a hideout for the African National Congress. Among others, Nelson Mandela had moved onto the farm in October 1961 and evaded security police while masquerading as a gardener and cook called David Motsamayi (meaning “come-and-go”).

Arrests
Arrested were:

Walter Sisulu
Govan Mbeki
Raymond Mhlaba
Andrew Mlangeni
Elias Motsoaledi, trade union and ANC member
Ahmed Kathrada
Dennis Goldberg, a Cape Town engineer and leader of the Congress of Democrats.
Lionel “Rusty” Bernstein, architect and member of the Communist party
Bob Hepple
Arthur Goldreich
Harold Wolpe, prominent attorney and activist
James “Jimmy” Kantor, brother-in-law of Harold Wolpe
and others.

Goldberg, Bernstein, Hepple and Goldreich were Caucasian Jews, Kathrada was Indian, and Sisulu, Mbeki, Motsoaledi and Mhlaba were black.

The trial brought in Nelson Mandela and chief of MK, Walter Mkwayi.

The government took advantage of 90 days without trial, and the defendants were held incommunicado. Meanwhile, Goldreich and Wolpe bribed a guard and escaped from jail on August 11. Their escape infuriated the prosecutors and police who considered Goldreich to be “the arch-conspirator.”

Lawyers were unable to see the accused until two days before indictment on October 9. Leading the defense team was Bram Fischer, the distinguished Afrikaner lawyer, assisted by Joel Joffe, Arthur Chaskalson, George Bizos and Harold Hanson. At the end of October, Hepple was able to leave the dock because he had agreed to testify for the prosecution; later he managed to flee the country.

The chief prosecutor was Dr. Percy Yutar, deputy attorney-general of the Transvaal, also Jewish.

The trial began on November 26, 1963. After dismissal of the first indictment as inadequate, the trial finally got under way on December 3 with an expanded indictment. Each of the ten accused pleaded not guilty. The trial ended on June 12, 1964.

List of defendants
Nelson Mandela
Walter Sisulu
Govan Mbeki (father of Thabo Mbeki, now President of South Africa)
Raymond Mhlaba
Elias Motsoaledi
Ahmed Kathrada
Denis Goldberg
Andrew Mlangeni
Walter Mkwayi
Lionel “Rusty” Bernstein (acquitted)
Harold Wolpe
James Kantor

Charges
Charges were:

recruiting persons for training in the preparation and use of explosives and in guerrilla warfare for the purpose of violent revolution and committing acts of sabotage
conspiring to commit the aforementioned acts and to aid foreign military units when they invaded the Republic,
acting in these ways to further the objects of communism
soliciting and receiving money for these purposes from sympathizers in Algeria, Ethiopia, Liberia, Nigeria, Tunisia, and elsewhere.
“Production requirements” for munitions for a six-month period were sufficient, the prosecutor Percy Yutar said in his opening address, to blow up a city the size of Johannesburg.

Kantor was discharged at the end of the prosecution’s case.

The trial was condemned by the United Nations Security Council, and led to their trying to get international sanctions imposed against the South African government.

Escapes
Arthur Goldreich escaped from prison disguised as a priest
Walter Mkwayi (escaped during trial)
Harold Wolpe (esaped with the help of Manni Brown)
James Kantor (esaped with the help of Manni Brown)

Manni Brown Tour operator as a cover to deliver weapons to the ANC.

Results
Originally the death penalty had been requested, but was changed because of world-wide protests and the ingenuity of the defence team. Eight defendants were sentenced to life imprisonment, and one acquitted.

[1] “There was no surprise in the fact that Mandela, Sisulu, Mbeki, Motsoaledi, Mlangeni, and Goldberg were found guilty on all four counts. The defense had hoped that Mhlaba, Kathrada, and Bernstein might escape conviction because of the skimpiness of evidence that they were parties to the conspiracy, although undoubtedly they could be prosecuted on other charges. But Mhlaba too was found guilty on all counts, and Kathrada, on one charge of conspiracy. Bernstein, however, was found not guilty. He was rearrested, released on bail, and placed under house arrest. Later he fled the country.”
Denis Goldberg went to Pretoria Central Prison instead of Robben Island (at that time the only security wing for white political prisoners in South Africa) where he served 22 years.

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